Sometimes we want to quote a speaker’s word−to write a speaker’s exact words. Exact quotations are used in many kinds of writing, such as newapaper articles, stories and novels, and academic papers. When we quote a speaker’s words, we use quotation marks.
|SPEAKER: SPEAKER’S EXACT WORD||QUOTING THE SPEAKER’S W|
|Jane : Cats are fun to watch.Mike: Yes, I agree. They’re graceful and playful. Do you own a cat?||(a) Jane said, “Cats are fun to watch.”(b) Mike said, “Yes, I agree.They’re graceful and playful.Do you own a cat?”|
| HOW TO WRITE QUOTATIONS:1. Put a comma after said,*………………………………………. Jane said,2. Put quotation mark,……………………………………………………. Jane said,”3. Capitalize the first word of quotation…………………………. Jane said,”
C4. Write the quotation. Put a final period…………………………Jane said,”Cats are fun to watch.
5. Put quotation marks after the period…………………………..Jane said,”Cats are fun to watch.”
|6. When there are two (or more) sentence ina quotation, put the quotation marks atthe beginning and end of the whole quote.Do not put quotation marks around eachsentence!7. As with a period, put the quotation marksafter a question mark at the end of quote.||Mike said, ”Yes, I agrre.There’re graceful and playful.Do you own a cat?” INCORRECT:Mike said, “Yes, I agree.”“There’re graceful and playful.”“Do you own a cat?”|
|8. Be sure to put quotation marks above the line, not on the line.|
*Other common verbs besides say that introduce quotation: admit, announce, answer, ask, complain, explain, inquire, report, replay, shout, state, write.
QUOTED SPEECH vs. REPORTED SPEECH
|QUOTED SPEECH : Quoted speechrefers to reproducing another person’s exact words.Quotation marks are used.REPORTED SPEECH: Reported speechrefers to reproducing the idea of another person’swords. Not all of the exact words are used: verb forms and pronounsmay change. Quotation marks are used.|
|QUOTED SPEECH(a) Ann said,” I am hungry.”(c) Tom said,” I need my pen.”
|REPORTED SPEECH(b) Ann said that she was hungry.(d) Tom said that he needed his pen.
|Notice in the examples:The verb forms and pronouns change from quoted speech to reported speech.|
*Quoted speech is also called direct speeh. Reported speech is also called indirect speech.
VERB FORM USAGE IN REPORTED SPEECH: FORMAL SEQUENCE OF TENSE
|FORMAL : If main verb of the sentence is in the past (e.g., said), the verb in the noun clause is usually also in a past form.* Notice the verb form changes in the examples below|
|QUOTED SPEECH(a) He said,”I workhard.”(b) He said,”I am workinghard.”(c) He said,”I have workedhard.”(d) He said,”I workedhard.”(e) He said,”I am going to work hard.”
(f) He said,”I will work hard.”
(g) He said,”I can work hard.”
(h) He said,”I may work hard.”
(i) He said,”I have to work hard.”
(j) He said,”I must work hard.”
(k) He said,”I should work hard.”
(l) He said,”I ought to work hard.”
|REPORTED SPEECH -> He said (that) he workedhard.-> He said (that) he was workinghard.-> He said (that) he had workedhard.-> He said (that) he had workedhard.-> He said (that) he was going to work hard.
-> He said (that) he would work hard.
-> He said (that) he could work hard.
-> He said (that) he might work hard.
-> He said (that) he had to work hard.
-> He said (that) he might work hard.
-> He said (that) he should work hard. (no change)
->He said (that) he ought to work hard. (no chsnge)
|INFORMAL: Sometimes, especially in speaking, the verb in the noun clause is not changed if the speaker is reporting something immediately or soon after it was said.|
|(m) Immediate reporting: A. What did Ann just say? I didn’t hear her.B. She said (that) she ishungry.(n) Later reporting : A. What did Ann say when she got homelast night?B. She said (that) she was hungry.|
*If the main verb of the sentence is in the present (e.g., says), no change is made in the verb tense or
modal in the noun clause.
He says,”I work hard.”============> He says (that) he works hard.
He says,”I am working hard.”========> He says (that) he’s working hard.
He says,”I worked hard.”==========> He says (that) he worked hard.
He says,”I will work hard.”=========> He says (that) he will work hard.