|(a) I enjoy music. (music = noun)(b) I enjoy listeningto music.(listening = gerund)(c) I enjoy listening to music.(listening to music = gerund phrase)||I enjoy something. (something =the object of the verb)The object of a verb is usually a noun or pronoun,as in (a).The object of a verb can also be a gerund.A gerund is the -ing form of a verb.*It is used as a noun.In (b): listeningia a gerund. It is the object ofthe verb enjoy.|
|(d) I want a sandwich.(a sandwich= noun)(e) I want to eata sandwich.(to eat= infinitive)(f) I want to eatasandwich.(to eat a sanwich = infinitive phrase)||I want something. (something= the object of the verb)In (d): The object of the verb is a noun (a sanwich)The object of a verb can also be an infinitive.An infinitive is to + the simple form of a verb.In (e): to eatis an invinitive.It is the object of the verb want.|
|(g) enjoy goingtothe beach||Some verbs (e.g., enjoy) are followed by gerunds.|
|(h) Ted wants to gothe beach.||Some verbs (e.g., want) are followed by infinitive.|
|(i) It began raining.It began to rain.||Some verbs (e.g., begin) are followed by either gerunds andinfinitive.|
* The –ing form of a verb can be used as a present paticiple.
- I am listening to the techer right now. (listening = a present participle, used in the present progressive).
The -ing form of a verb can be used as a gerund.
- I enjoy listening to music. (listening = a gerund, used as the object of the verb enjoy)
VERB + GERUND
Common Verbs Followed by Gerunds
Gerunds are used as the object of the verbs in the list below. The list also contains phrasal verbs (e.g., put off) that are followed by gerunds.
enjoy (a) I enjoy working in my garden.
finish (b) Bob finished studying at midnight.
stop* (c) It stopped raining a few minutes ago.
quit (d) David quit smoking.
mind (e) Would you mind opening the window?
postpone (f) I postpone doing my homework.
put off (g) I put off doing my homework.
keep (h) Keep working. Don’t stop!
keep on (i) Keep on working. Don’t stop!
consider (j) I’m considering going to Hawaii.
think about (k) I’m thinking about going to Hawaii.
discuss (l) They discussed getting a new car.
talk about (m) They talked about getting a new car.
(n) I considered not going to Hawaii. Negative form: not + gerund.
These verbs are NOT followed by infinitives.*
INCORRECT: I enjoy to work.
INCORRECT: Bob finished to study.
INCORRECT: I’m thinking to go to Hawaii.
*The object following stop is a gerund, NOT an infinitive. INCORRECT: It stopped to rain.
But in special circumstance, stop can be followed by an infinitive of purpose: in order to
Example: While I was walking down the hall, I dropped my pen. I stopped to pick it up.=
I stopped walking in order to pick it up.
GO + ING
Go is followed by gerund in certain idiomatic expressions about activities.
(a) Did you go shopping yesterday?
(b) I went swimming last week.
(c) Bob hasn’t gone fishing in years.
There is no to between go and the gerund.
INCORRECT: Did you go to shopping?
CORRECT : Did you go shopping?
COMMON EXPRESSIONS WITH GO + -ING
go boating go hiking go sightseeing
go bowling go jogging go skating
go camping go running go skiing
go dancing go sailing go skydiving
go fishing go shopping go swimming
VERB + INFINITIVE
Some verbs followed by invinitive;
AN INVINITIVE = to + the simple form of verb.
(a) Tom offered to lend me some money.
(b) I’ve decided to buy a new car.
(c) I’ve decided not to keep my old car.
Negative form: not + infinitive
COMMOM VERBS FOLLOWED BY BY INVINITIVES
would like refuse
would love seen
intend learn (how)
decide (can’t) afford
promise (can’t) wait
VERB + GERUND OR INVINITIVE
Some verbs are followed by either an infinitive or a gerund. Usually there is no different in meaning.
(a) It began to rain
(b) It began raining
(a) and (b) have the same meaning
COMMON VERBS FOLLOWED BY EITHER GERUND AND AN INFINITIVE
continue can’t stand
Like and love can be followed by either gerund and an infinitive:
I like going/to go to movies. I love playing/to play chess.
Would like and would love are followed by infinitives:
I would like to go to movie tonight. I’d love to play a game of chess right now.